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Ketamine Produces Anesthesia and Analgesia in Miniature Pigs Via NO-cGMP Signaling Pathway
Wenhan Liu, Yu Chen, Yu Zhang, Xinran Li, Yanan Li, Jinghua Zhao and Li Gao*
Heilongjiang Key Laboratory for Laboratory Animals and Comparative Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, China; *Corresponding author:


Ketamine is a commonly used anesthetic for injection in pigs. However, how ketamine produces anesthesia and analgesia is unclear. Twenty Bama miniature pigs were randomly divided into four groups: saline control, induction (T1=15 min), deep anesthesia (T2=45 min) and recovery (T3=75 min). The cerebrum cortex, cerebellum, brainstem, hippocampus, and thalamus were collected. Results indicated that the activities or content of the indicators in different regions was inhibited by ketamine at different periods. The Na+-K+-ATPase activity in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, thalamus and brainstem decreased by 48.69, 20.27, 51.18 and 36.44%, respectively, while the Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase activity in each region decreased by 28.75, 28.59, 46.58, 64.11 and 34.68%, respectively. The NOS activity in regions except thalamus decreased by 49.76, 13.12, 13.77 and 15.96%, respectively. respectively. The content of No in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus and thalamus decreased by 33.25, 46.93, 44.44 and 50.00%, respectively, and the cGMP content in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus decreased by 28.25, 29.87 and 40.60%, respectively. The changes of each index were consistent with the physiological responses of pigs when they are anesthetized. In summary, ketamine is suitable for pig anesthesia. It produces anesthetic and analgesic effects via the NO-cGMP signaling pathway, however, more drugs need to be studied for an effective balanced anesthetic protocol that meets demands.

To Cite This Article: Liu W, Chen Y, Zhang Y, Li X, Li Y, Zhao J and Gao L, 2018. Ketamine produces anesthesia and analgesia in miniature pigs via NO-CGMP signaling pathway. Pak Vet J.


ISSN 0253-8318 (Print)
ISSN 2074-7764 (Online)