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Silver Nanoparticles: Green Synthesis, Characterization, Blood Compatibility and Protoscolicidal Efficacy against Echinococcus granulosus
Parwin Jalal Jalil1, Bushra Hussain Shnawa1,2,*, and Samir Mustafa Hamad2

1Biology Department, Science Faculty, Soran University, Kurdistan-Iraq
2Scientific Research Centre, Soran University, Kurdistan- Iraq
*Corresponding author:


Spillage of protoscoleces within hydatid fluid during surgery for hydatid cyst is the main reason for its recurrence. Therefore, to inactivate the protoscoleces, various scolicidal substances have been tested. However, novel and more efficient agents are needed owing to several associated complications. This study focused on the effects of green synthetic Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs) from Zizyphus spina- christi leaves on Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces. Also, to evaluate the blood compatibility of Ag NPs. The Ag NPs were identified by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Visible) spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy imaging, and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Hydatid fluid was aspirated aseptically from cysts of infected sheep liver. The protoscoleces were exposed to Ag NPs at several concentrations. Also, scanning electron microscopy for ultrastructural changes and in vitro erythrocytes lysis was performed. The Ag NPs were spherical; the particles' size reached 50 nm, and presented a surface plasmon peak around 460 nm. The current study's findings indicated the powerful in vitro scolicidal efficacy of the green biosynthesized AgNPs. Several morphological alterations were observed on the protoscoleces by optical and scanning electron microscopy. Lysis of RBCs at different doses of Ag NPs was significantly (P≤0.05) less than the positive control value, thus proposing its biocompatibility. This work suggests that chemicals like polyphenols present in the extract of Z. spina- christi act as reducing and stabilizers agents to create Ag NPs Nevertheless, further investigations are needed to investigate the Ag NPs scolicidial effects in animal models.

To Cite This Article: Jalil PJ, Shnawa BH, and Hamad SM, 2021. Silver nanoparticles: green synthesis, characterization, blood compatibility, and protoscolicidal efficacy against Echinococcus granulosus. Pak Vet J.


ISSN 0253-8318 (Print)
ISSN 2074-7764 (Online)