Pak Vet J, 1998, 18(4): 173-176  
 
SDS-PAGE WITH DISCONTINUOUS BUFFER SYSTEM OF GOAT MILK WHEY
Munazza Shaukat, M. Ashfaque, I. Hussain and T. M. Chaudhry
 
Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Science,
University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan
 

Abstract   

Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is a valuable tool for establishing quantitative distribution of milk proteins. The fat free goat milk was obtained by centrifugation. The casein was removed by coagulation with 2 per cent solution of rennin. The whey was purified by filtration and then it was subjected to 12.5 per cent polyacrylamide gel electorphoresis. Six protein markers, bovine serum albumin (dimer), bovine serum albumin (monomer), chicken egg albumin, carbonic anhydrase, haemoglobin and lysozyme were also run in the same way. Two out of fi've goat milk whey samples, presented five protein bands including alactalbumin, H-lactoglobulin, lactoferrin, serum albumin and unidentified protein with Rf values ranging from 0.34 to 0. 72 having molecular weights ranging from 14.3 kDa to 87 kDa. The other three samples had a similar protein pattern except that the protein band with Rf value 0.593 having molecular weight of 30 kDa present in two samples was absent.


   Pak Vet J, 1998, 18(4): 177-180  
 
EFFECT OF CRYOPRESERVATION ON THE POST THAW SURVIVEABILITY OF BUFFALO BULL SPERMATOZOA WITHOUT SEMINAL PLASMA
 
I.Q. Khan, K.M. Ahmad, N. Akhtar and A. Khan1
 
Department of Animal Reproduction, 1DepartJnent of Veterinary Pathology,
University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040, Pakistan
 

Abstract   

Semen samples from Nili Ravi buffalo bulls were collected and divided for three treatments i.e. A (whole semen), B (spermatozoa free of seminal plasma) and C (spermatozoa resuspended in seminal plasma). Each frctction was extended in two different extenders viz. E1 (mi!k-egg yolk glycerol), E2 (lactose-fructoseegg yolk-glycerol) by the ratios of 1: 10. After equilibration of 5 hours, all samples were frozen at -196 C. The average (Mean ± SD) post thaw motility (47. 75 ± 3. 87, 57.25 ± 4.38 and 34.50 ± 5.30 per-cent) and 5.30 ± 0.81, 8.00 ± 0 . 82 ami 3.05 ± 0.699 hours for liveability at 37JC while 102.62 ± 15.16, 217.25 ± 19.08 and 46.87 ± 9.09 for absolute index of liveability for three treatments respectively. There was highly significant difference (P < 0.001) among the three treatment. Treatment B proved the best and followed by treatment A and C. Extender lactose-fructose-egg yolk-glycerol proved superior than milk egg yolk -glycerol.


   Pak Vet J, 1998, 18(4): 181-186  
 
SEMEN QUALITY AND PLASMA TESTOSTERONE CONCENTRATIONS AFTER UNILATERAL LIGATION OF TESTICULAR BLOOD VESSELS IN MALE GOATS AND RAMS
 
Nazir Ahmad and Shujait Ali
 
Department of Animal Reproduction, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan
 

Abstract   

This study was carried out to monitor changes in the semen quality and plasma testosterone concentrations for 20 weeks following unilateral ligation of testicular vessels in three male goats and two rams. One male goat and one ram were used as untreated controls. Ejaculates from the experimental animals were collected fortnightly and evaluated for physical characteristics. Weekly blood samples were taken by jugular venepuncture and analyzed for plasma testosterone concentration by radio-immunoassay. The ejaculatory volume showed a decreasing trend in all male goats including the control, as the study advanced. Similarly. in all treated male goats and rams, total number of sperms per Ejaculate decreased and remained lower than the pre-treatment values. The percentages of dead and morphologically abnormal spermatozoa were higher and those of motile spermatozou lower in Ejaculates collected during weeks 1-7 after treatment than the pretreatment values. The plasma testosterone concentrations showed a wide variation and were relatively lower in the treated than the control animals of both species. However, the number of animals used in the study was too small to draw any firm conclusions.


   Pak Vet J, 1998, 18(4): 187-191  
 
KINETICS OF ANTIBODIES IN SERUM, EGG YOLK AND DAY-OLD CHICKS AGAINST INFECTIOUS BURSAL DISEASE IN CIDCKEN BROILER BREEDERS
 
Mushtaque Ahmad and M. Siddique
 
Department of Veterinary Microbiology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan
 

Abstract   

Ten broiler breeder flocks were selected for serum and egg yolk antibody titres against infectious bursal disease (IBD). Serum and yolk sac of the chicks hatching from the eggs of the same breeder flocks were also studied for antibody titres. Geometric mean titre of various flocks varied from 9 to 59 in serum and 20 to 127 in the eggs. The titres were maximum at 4 weeks post-vaccination which showed a drop at 8 weeks post vaccination. Titre against IBD were comparatively lower in chicks than the corresponding titres in the parent flocks. GMT in yolk sac of the chicks revealed relatively higher values than the serum titres of the respective chicks.


   Pak Vet J, 1998, 18(4): 192-196  
 
IDENTIFICATION AND Il\1MUNOGENICITY OF POLYSACCHARIDE ANTIGENS OF PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA STRAINS INVOLVED IN HAEMORRHAGIC SEPTICAEMIA
 
Naj1nul Hasnain Shah and Nasir H. Shah
 
Center of Animal Biotechnology, Veterinary Research Institute, Peshawar, Pakistan
 

Abstract   

Polysaccharide antigens of Pasteurella multocida serotype B:2,5 were identified by immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis. The immunodiffusion tests showed that the first line, near the well containing the whole polysaccharide extract (WPE) represent LPS because this precipitation line occurs by diffusion using antiserum raised against P. multocida serotypes 8:2,5 and E:2,5 but not with 8:3,4. The second precipitation line, near the well containing antiserum raised against P. multocitla serotype 8:2,5, represent the bacterial capsule because this precipitation line also occurs by diffusion using preparation B (capsular antigen) or a whole cell extract of P. multocida serotype B:3,4. Immunoelectrophoresis was used to further characterize the polysaccharide antigens. The LPS remained near the antigen well, where as the less hydrophobic and more acidic bacterial capsule moved further towards the anode. Immune responses against these antigens were measured in sera from a vaccinated buffalo. The analysis of the anti-polysaccharide response after removal of anti-LPS antibodies demonstrated a very low response to capsular material, whereas a 5-times higher response was measured against LPS.


   Pak Vet J, 1998, 18(4): 197-202  
 
REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF DAIRY BUFFALOES UNDER PERIURBAN
COMMERCIAL FARMING IN NWFP, PAKISTAN
 
M.S. Qureshi, H. A. Samad1, Nazir Ahmad1, G. Habib2, A.D. Anjum1 and M.M. Siddiqui
 
Veterinary Research Institute NWFP, Peshawar, 1University of Agriculture, Faisalabad; 2NWFP
Agricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan
 

Abstract   

Fifty one dairy buffaloes in their last two months of gestation were selected at seven peri-urban commercial farms located within a radius of 70km around Peshawar. These animals were monitored from parturition until 150 days post-partum. After parturition, rectal examination of reproductive organs was carried out. Estrus detection was made through visual signs and use of intact bulls. Milk samples were collected and analyzed with radio- immunoassay for milk progesterone levels. The mean postpartum uterine involution (PUI) interval was 34.30 ± 1.33 days, ranging from 21 to 74 days. PUI interval was upto 35 days in 55% buffaloes and upto 50 days in 85% buffaloes. During 150 days after calving, 69% buffaloes were found in estrus and the remaining 31% animals remained anestrous. The overall mean postpartum estrus interval was 69.03 ± 6.03 days, the range being 21 to 147 days. Mean postpartum ovulation interval was recorded as 59.37 ± 4. 76 days, ranging from 24 to 150 days. The postpartum ovulation and estrus intervals were significantly longer (P < 0.05) in buffaloes calving during their normal breeding season than the low breeding season calvers. The occurrence of ovulatory, anovulatory and silent estrus was recorded as 43.9, 4.6 and 51.5%, respectively. Silent ovulation was more prevalent in low breeding season than normal breeding season calvers (70.6 vs 29.4% ). In true anestrous buffaloes, milk progesterone concentrations remained constantly low, however, silent ovulations were associated with increasing progesterone levels. It was concluded that postpartum reproductive performance in buffaloes under commercial peri-urban farming system remained lower than desirable levels which offers scope for further improvement through improvements in estrous detection efficiency and better feeding and management of buffaloes.


   Pak Vet J, 1998, 18(4): 203-205  
 
RELEASE OF INTRACELLULAR ALANINE AND ASPARTATE TRANSAMINASE Fl􀀦OM BUFFALO SEMEN DURING CENTRIFUGATION AND THEIR EFFECT ON SPERM SURVIVAL
 
M. Ahmad , I. Qadeer Khan, A. Khan1 and K.M. Ahmad
 
Department of Animal Reproduction, 1Department of Veterinary Pathology,
University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-38040 Pakistan
 

Abstract   

Ten pooled buffalo semen samples were separated into five equal aliquots i. e A to E. Aliquot A (whole semen not centrifuged), C (centrifuged but seminal plasma not removed) and E (centrifuged and seminal plasma removed) were extended at the ratio of 1: 10 with lactose-fructose-egg-yolk-glycerol extender and incubated to note the liveability (hours) and absolute index of liveability at 37 C. Aliquot E showed significant better liveability than A and C (P < 0.01). The poorest results were observed in that of aliquotc.
Aliquot B (whole semen not centrifuged), D (whole semen centrifuged but seminal plasma not removed) and seminal plasma removed from aliquot E after centrifugation were used for the determination of alanine and aspartate transaminase (ALT & AST). The ALT levels of 30. 29 ± 1.37, 34.75 ± 2. 02 and 10.50 ± 0. 48 lU/L where as AST concentration of 214.12 ± 3. 51, 257. 37 ± 3. 90 and 60. 28 ± 1.75 IU/L were found in aliquot B, D and E, respectively.
It may he concluded from the results that centrifugation induces leakage of ALT and AST which have adverse effects on sperm survival. Therefore, seminal plasma must he removed after centrifugation to improve the sperm survivability and preservation.


   Pak Vet J, 1998, 18(4): 206-208  
 
OESTRUS OVIS INFESTATION IN SIIEEP OF SEMI-ARID ZONE OF NIGERIA
 
A.A. Biu and C.O. Nwosu
 
Department of Veterinary Microbiology & Parasitology,
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, P.M. B. 1069, Nigeria
 

Abstract   

Investigations carried out on the incidence of Oestrus ovis in Maiduguri, Nigeria revealed that 62. 5% of the 4002 sheep heads were parasitised. Adult sheep infestation rate was (88. 1%) significantly (P < 0.05) higher than young sheep (43.5% ). Infestation rates were also significantly (P < 0.05) higher (83. 6%) in female than male (3 7. 8%) sheep. All ins tars of the larvae were encountered throughout the year.
The peaks of 1st, 2nd and 3rd stage larvae infestation were recorded during the month of September while the lowest levels were recorded in May.


   Pak Vet J, 1998, 18(4): 209-212  
 
RENAL CLEARANCE OF ENDOGENOUS CREATININE, UREA AND KANAMYCIN IN CO\VS
 
Tabindah Yasmeen, Tahira Iqbal, F.H. Khan1 and Muhammad Nawaz1
 
Department of Biochemistry, 1Department of Physiology and Pharmacology,
University of Agriculture, Faisalabdd, Pakistan
 

Abstract   

Following a single intravenous dose of kanamycin 5 mg/kg body weight to 8 health cows, renal clearance of the drug and that of endogenous creatinine and urea were determined. Before drug au ministration control samples and after drug administration blood and urine samples were collected at predetermined time periods. The plasma and urine samples were assayed for endogenous creatinine and urea by spectrophotometric methoc.ls and kanamycin by microbiological assay. Mean ± SE (n = 32) valut!s for the: blooc.l anc.l urine pH mean were 7.37 ± 0.04 aml7 .91 ± 0.07, respectively. The rate of urine flow (diuresis) was 0.024 ± 0.003 ml.min·'.kg·', renal clearance of endogenous creatinine was 0.60 ± 0.08, urea 0.17 ± 0.04 and kanamycin was 0.08 ± 0.0 I ml.min·1.kg"1 boc.ly weight. A significant (P < 0.00 I ) positive correlation (r=0.55) between diuresis and renal clearance of kanamycin indicated that renal handling of kanamycin in cows, besic.les glomerular filtration also involved back diffusion.


   Pak Vet J, 1998, 18(4): 213-215  
 
PREVALENCE OF TOXOPLASMA ANTIBODIES IN SMALL RUMINANTS IN
JORDAN
 
Fuad M.M. Aldomy and A.J. Wilsmore1
 
Division of Veterinary Laboratories, P. 0. Box 2395, Ministry of Agriculture, Amman, Jordan,
1Department of Animal Health, Royal Veterinary College, University of London, Boltons Park, Potters
Bar, Herts, EN6 JNB, UK
 

Abstract   

A serological survey was conducted on 51 sheep flocks and goat herds to assess the prevalence of Toxoplasma infection in sheep and goats in Jordan using the latex agglutination test. The prevalence in sheep was 21 and in goats 18.8 per cent. The prenatal mortality for lambs and kids to seropositive was 20 per cent .


   Pak Vet J, 1998, 18(4): 216-218  
 
IN VITRO METABOLISM OF SUI.JFAMETHOXAZOLE BY RUMINAL MICROFLORA OF DOMESTIC RUMINANATS
 
Rakhshanda Nawaz and Sofia Farrial
 
Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan
 

Abstract   

The metabolis of sulfamethoxazole by ruminal microflora of domestic ruminants (i.e. buffalo, cow, goat and sheep) was investigated by in vitro incubation of 40 JLg/ml drug with the ruminal fluid. The incubated samples were analysed at different time intervals to measure the amount of free and N4 acetyl metabolite of the drug. In the initial phase rate of drug metabolism was slow and after 2.5 hours it was maximum in all the species. The average ± SD percent of the remaining un-metabolized drug until2.5 hours was 76.37 ± 1.68, 82.16 ± 1.88, 65.29± 1.88 and 83.49±0.69 percent in buffalo, cow, goat and sheep, respectively. Average amount of N4 acetyl metabolite produced by the ruminal microflora until 2.5 hours after incubation of ruminal liquor from buffaloes, cows, goats and sheep was 24, 18, 35 and 17 percent, respectively.


   Pak Vet J, 1998, 18(4): 219-223  
 
EFFECT OF AGE AND BREEDING SEASON ON THE FREEZABILITY OFBUFFALOBULLSEMEN
 
M. Younis, H. A. Samad, Nazir Ahmad and C. S. Ali
 
Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-38040, Pakistan
 

Abstract   

The freezability of semen collected during the low (May-July) and the peak (September-November) breeding seasons from 18 Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls of young (3-4 years), adult (6-8 years) and old ( 12- 15 years) age groups was studied. After extension in lactose.:..fructose-egg-yolk-glycerol extender, semen samples were frozen and stored in liquid nitrogen. Post-thaw motility and liveability of spermatozoa were higher (p < 0.05) in adult than in young and old bulls and during the peak than the low breeding season. Sperm abnormalities in frozen-thawed semen fr<)m hulls of young, adult and old groups differed significantly (p < 0.05), and were higher (p < 0.05) during the low than the peak bretX!ing season. GOT and GPT activities in fresh, diluted and frozen-thawed seminal plasma from young and old bulls were higher (P < 0.05) than that of adults. GOT and GPT activities in seminal plasma of fresh, diluted and frozen-thawed semen were higher (p < 0.05) in the low than the peak breeding season. Due to freezing, GOT activity in seminal plasma of young, adult and old bulls increased by 29. 80, 2 1. 12 and 38. 15%, respectively. The corresponding values for GPT activity were 16.22, 16.33 and 40.74%. It was concluded that the semen freezability was better in adult buffalo bulls than young or old hulls, ami during the peak than the low breeding season.


   Pak Vet J, 1998, 18(4): 224-226  
 
AN OUTBREAK OF PESTE DES PETITS RUMINANTS IN GOATS IN RAWALPINDI
 
Manzoor Hussain, M. Afzal, R. Muneer, M.Ashfaque1 and E.U. Haq
 
Animal Health Institute, National Agricultural Research Centre, Park Road Islamabad 45500.
'Department of Veterinary Microbiology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad.
2Livestock and Dairy Development Department, Govt. of the Pulljab, Rawalpindi, Pakistan
 

Abstract   

An outbreak of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in goats was recorded in the area of Rawalpindi city. Sick animals showed serous ocular and nasal discharge, fever up to 106°F, erosive lesions in mouth, diarrhoea and pneumonia. Mortality rate was 80%. Appropriate samples were collected for laboratory analysis. Results of competitive ELISA and immunocapture ELISA determined that the animals were suffering from PPR. Vaccination using tissue culture rinderpest virus (TCRV) was successful to curtail the infection in goats in that area.

   Pak Vet J, 1998, 18(4): 227-228  
 
SUCCESSFUL TREATMENT OF LEUKODERMA IN A BUFFALO HEIFER WITH PROLONGED ADMINISTRATION OF COPPER SULPHATE
 
Ghulam Muhammad, T. Zia1 and A. Razzaq1
 
Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, 1Students, Faculty of Veterinary Science,
University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan
 

Abstract   

   Pak Vet J, 1998, 18(4): 229-230  
 
MIXED INFESTATION OF MANAGE MITES IN BEETAL GOATS
 
M.N. Khan, 1M. Riaz and A. Qudoos
 
Department of Veterinary Parasitology, 1Department of Livestock Management,
University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-38040, Pakistan
 

Abstract   

   Pak Vet J, 1998, 18(4): 231-232  
 
TRYPANOSOMIASIS IN A DRAUGHT DONKEY
 
M. Saqib,1 G. Muhammad, A. Khan, M. N. Asi,1 A. Inayae
 
Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Agriculture Faisalabad. 38040, Pakistan
DVM Students
 

Abstract   

   Pak Vet J, 1998, 18(4): 233-239  
 
RECORDING DAIRY ANIMALS FOR PROGENY TESTING-AN OVERVIEW
 
Muhammad Sajjad Khan
 
Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan
 

Abstract   

 

 
   

ISSN 0253-8318 (Print)
ISSN 2074-7764 (Online)



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