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Comparative efficacy (sedative and anaesthetic) of detomidine, ketamine and detomidine-ketamine cocktail in pigeons (Columba livia)


Pet centre; University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore; 1Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan


    A study was conducted to compare the synergistic efficacy of detomidine, ketamine and their cocktail in pigeons (Columba livia). For this study, 15 adult and healthy pigeons were divided into three equal groups A, B and C. Birds of groups A and B were intramuscularly administered detomidine and ketamine  @ 1.4 and 60 mg/kg b. wt., respectively. Pigeons of group C received detomidine + Ketamine cocktail @ 0.7 and 30 mg/kg b. wt. Induction of sedation and anaesthesia was smooth in all groups. Mean duration of induction was 11.1 + 2.03, 11.0 + 1.49 and 1.6 + 0.48 minutes in groups A, B, C, respectively. In groups A and B, smooth but light sedation and anaesthesia were observed accompanied by superficial analgesia, while in group C, birds showed deep anaesthesia alongwith deep analgesia. Birds in groups A and C elicited hypothermia, respiratory depression and bradycardia till complete recovery, while group B showed hyperthermia and tachycardia with rapid respiration. In group A, sedation persisted for 54.2 + 21.82 minutes and mean recovery period was 49.9 + 5.91 minutes, while groups B and C had anaesthesia for 47.7 + 8.06 and 103.5 + 27.52 minutes, and recovery periods were 52.6 + 9.64 and 61.3 + 17.26 minutes, respectively. Recovery was rough in group B and smooth in groups A and C. It was concluded that in pigeons, detomidine (alone) is safe for handling and for least painful procedures, while detomidine-ketamine cocktail is safe as intramuscular anaesthetic for major surgical procedures. However, ketamine is not a good anaesthetic to be used alone in pigeons.

Key Words: Detomidine-ketamine cocktail, sedative, anaesthetic, analgesic, pigeons.


ISSN 0253-8318 (Print)
ISSN 2074-7764 (Online)