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Vertebral Absence in a Lamb with Vitamin A Deficiency
Nektarios D. Giadinis*, Nikolaos G. Papaioannou1, Panagiota Tsaousi1, Asimakis Koutsoumpas2, Anna Fytianou and Harilaos Karatzias
Clinic of Farm Animals; 1Laboratory of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece; 2Alexander S. Onasis, Public Benefit Foundation, Greece
*Corresponding author:


A single female lamb aged 2 days old was submitted to the Clinic of Farm Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece as it was unable to stand. At clinical examination, the lamb was found alert and was in sternal recumbency. External palpation across the spinal column revealed absence of the dorsal vertebral bodies. Hematology and blood biochemical profile were within the normal limits, except for serum vitamin A level that was below the detected limit. Postmortem examination revealed absence of cervical, thoracic (1st through 7th), lumbar, sacral and coccygeal vertebrae while the 8th through 13th thoracic vertebrae with the corresponding ribs appeared normal. Abdominal dissection showed swelling and congestion of kidneys and liver. Abnormal malformations were not observed in the urogenital and gastro-intestinal system of the lamb, as well as concominant soft tissue defects. Liver copper was within normal range while liver vitamin A levels were below the detected level.

Key words: Congenital malformation, Hypovitaminosis A, Lamb, Vertebral absence


ISSN 0253-8318 (Print)
ISSN 2074-7764 (Online)