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Case-Control Study of Parturient Hemoglobinuria in Buffaloes
Altaf Mahmood*, Muhammad Athar Khan, Muhammad Younus1, Muhammad Arif Khan2, Hafiz Javed Iqbal3 and Abdul Ahad4
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, 1Department of Pathology, 2Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, 3Department of Parasitology; 4Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan
*Corresponding author: malikaltafmahmood @


Population based case control study of parturient hemoglobinuria was conducted in District Chakwal during April 2009 to January 2011 for quantification of epidemiological risk factors associated with condition. Data of 180 case–control pairs were analyzed for various hypothesized risk factors. Odds ratios calculated for ≥7 years age (5.56), ≥7 months pregnancy (15.80), ≥3 lactation number (6.39), ≥8 liters daily milk yield (1.07), ≤60 days postpartum period (6.23), previous history of hemoglobinuria (3.41) and ingestion of cruciferous plants (2.51) were significant (P˂0.05); whereas, those recorded for cottonseed cake (1), use of mineral mixture (0.81), use of drugs (1.07), use of oxytocin injection (1.32), vaccination (1), grazing (0.91) and previous history of diseases other than parturient hemoglobinuria (1.19) were insignificant (P>0.05). It was concluded that parturient hemoglobinuria is strongly associated with age, lactation number, stage of pregnancy, postpartum period and previous disease history of affected animals.

Key words: Buffaloes, Case-control study, Hemolytic anemia, Hemolytic syndrome, Intravascular hemolysis, Parturient hemoglobinuria, Phosphorous deficiency, Risk factors


ISSN 0253-8318 (Print)
ISSN 2074-7764 (Online)