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Efficacy of Medetomidine Hydrochloride Alone and In Combination with Ketamine Hydrochloride for Surgical Anesthesia in Cats
Hamid Akbar, Muhammad Arif Khan, Shehla Gul Bokhari, Mansur Ud Din Ahmad1*, Muhammad Nawaz2, Aftab Ahmad Anjum2 and Humaira Majeed Khan3
Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery; 1Department of Epidemiology and Public Health; 2Department of Microbiology, University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Abdul Qadir Jillani Road, Lahore, 54000-Pakistan; 3Department of Pharmacy, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, 54000-Pakistan
*Corresponding author:


Efficacy of medetomidine HCl (Med-HCl) as sedative/analgesic alone and in combination with ketamine HCl (Ket-HCl) was clinically evaluated during ovariohysterectomy in cats. Clinically healthy cats (n=60) divided randomly into groups A, B and C (n=20 each). Cats in groups were administered normal saline (control), Med-HCl alone and combination of Med-HCl and Ket-HCl respectively. It was observed that body temperature, pulse and respiratory rates tend to decrease overall in treated cats compared to control. In group C, the onset of anesthesia was significantly shorter (P<0.05) whereas duration of recumbency and recovery prolonged in relation to other groups, suggesting superior efficacy of the combination. The analgesia and sedation scores at 15, 30 45 and 60 minutes post administration indicated significantly better efficacy of Med-HCl and Ket-HCl combination. The effects of the anesthetic drugs on liver enzymes (serum alkaline phosphatase and alanine aminotransferase) and kidney functions (urea, creatinine and uric acid) were non-significant showing no harmful effects on liver and kidney functions. Significant increase in the creatinine values were seen in group C. Hematological parameters such as uric acid, hemoglobin, total leukocyte count, differential leukocyte count showed non-significant changes in groups B and C as compared to control, group A. No untoward effects of Ket-HCl were appeared on use in combination with medetomidine. It was concluded that combination of medetomidine with ketamine is safe and effective anesthesia for feline surgical interventions.

Key words: Analgesia, Anesthesia, Ketamine HCl, Medetomidine HCl, Sedation


ISSN 0253-8318 (Print)
ISSN 2074-7764 (Online)