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Therapeutic Evaluation of Anti-Angiogenic and Chemotherapy with or without Cox-2 Inhibitor and Immunomodulator Drug in the Management of Canine Mammary Neoplasm
Kodakkadan  Manikkan Dileepkumar, Swapan Kumar Maiti*, Naveen Kumar and Malik Mohammad Shams-uz-Zama
Division of Surgery, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar 243 122, (UP), India
*Corresponding author:;


The present study was conducted for exploring the activity of anti-angiogenic and chemotherapeutic treatment with or without cox-2 inhibitor and immunomodulator drug in the management of spontaneous canine mammary neoplasms. Anti-angiogenic drug (Tamoxifen) (n=10), chemotherapy (5-FU) (n=10), chemotherapy (5-FU) along with cox-2 inhibitor (Etoricoxib) (n=10), chemotherapy (5-FU) along with cox-2 inhibitor (Etoricoxib) and immunomodulator drug (Levamisole) (n=10) were used in 40 female dogs having spontaneous mammary neoplasms. Anticancer drug (5-FU) and anti-angiogenic drug (Tamoxifen) induced apoptosis in canine mammary neoplasms. Immunomodulator drug (Levamisole) along with cox-2 inhibitor (Etoricoxib) and chemotherapeutic drug (5–fluorouracil) induced significantly (P<0.01) higher apoptosis. In conclusion, chemotherapy with immunomodulator drug and cox-2 inhibitor was clinically proved better than chemotherapeutic agent (5-FU) alone in the treatment of canine mammary neoplasms.

Key words: Anti-angiogenic therapy, Canine mammary neoplasms, Chemotherapy, Cox-2 inhibitor, Immunomodulator drug, Therapeutic management


ISSN 0253-8318 (Print)
ISSN 2074-7764 (Online)