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Expression of NKCC2, NCC and Na+-K+-ATPase Genes Encoding during Acute Renal Failure in Dogs
Hui Zhang1,§, Zhenyu Chang1,2,§, Meixian Bao1, Mujeeb Ur Rehman1, Khalid Mehmood1,3, Fazul Nabi1,4, Xiaoxing Wu1, Xinxin Tian1, Xiaodan Yuan1, Muhammad Ijaz5 and Donghai Zhou1,*
1College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, People's Republic of China; 2Key laboratory of clinical veterinary medicine in Tibet, Tibet Agriculture and Animal Husbandry College, Linzhi 860000 Tibet, China; 3University College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Islamia University of Bahawalpur-63100, Pakistan; 4Lasbela University of Agriculture, Water and Marine Science Uthal, Pakistan;  5Department of Clinical Medicine & Surgery, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore-54000, Pakistan
*Corresponding author:


Acute renal failure is a condition in which kidneys are unable to eliminate all the waste from the body. Renal failure results in acid-base imbalance and electrolyte homeostasis. Na+-K+-2Cl- Cotransporter (NKCC2), Na+-Cl- Cotransporter (NCC) and Na+-K+-ATPase Cotransporter (Na+-K+-ATPase) are the important water and sodium channels proteins in the kidney. The aim of this study was to determine the gene expression level in the kidney of dogs suffering with the acute renal failure. A total four dogs with acute renal failure and four healthy dogs were used in this study. The biochemical analysis was done via semi-automatic biochemical machine, while the urine and urinary sediment examination was observed via microscopic study. The acute renal failure was diagnosed and confirmed via necropsy and histopathological examinations and finally the protein expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Results showed that the concentration of sodium, potassium, creatinine and urea nitrogen were significantly different from control group. The level of pH and specific gravity (SG) were decreased with urobilinogen (URO) and were increased during acute renal failure. The urinary sedimentation results revealed the presence of RBCs and WBCs in urine samples. The kidney volume was increased with renal capsule due to hyperplasia and renal pelvis expansion. The hydronephrosis was also observed along with hemorrhages, shrinkage, necrosis, and inflammation in acute renal failure groups by histopathology. The immunohistochemical results revealed that the NKCC2, NCC and Na+-K+-ATPase were highly expressed in acute renal failure dogs. Therefore, it was concluded that sodium channels proteins possibly play an important role in dog’s acute renal failure cases.

Key words: Acute renal failure, Dogs, Kidney, Na+-K+-ATPase, NCC, NKCC2


ISSN 0253-8318 (Print)
ISSN 2074-7764 (Online)