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Molecular Screening of Resistant and Virulent Genes in Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium from Poultry in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Yasin Ahmad1, Rabaab Zahra1, Muhammad Ijaz Ali2, Muhammad Hasnain Riaz3, Rafiullah Khan4, Khalid Khan*, Muhammad Tahir Khan5, Muhammad Faraz Khan6, Shafiq Ullah7, Faizul Hassan8, Anwar Ali9, and Muhammad Tariq Zeb*
1Department of Microbiology Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan; 2Director, Veterinary Research Institute, Peshawar, Pakistan; 3Research Officer, Genomic Laboratory, Veterinary Research Institute, Peshawar, Pakistan; 4Principal Research Officer, Veterinary Research & Disease Investigation Center, Kohat, Pakistan; *Director, Foot & Mouth Disease Vaccine Research Center, Peshawar, Pakistan.  Capital University of Science & Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan; 6Faculty of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Sciences, Agriculture University Peshawar, Pakistan; 7Sarhad University of Science and Information Technology, Peshawar, Pakistan; 8Senior Research Officer, Veterinary Research Institute, Peshawar, Pakistan, 9Principal Research Officer, Center of Biological Production, Veterinary Research Insitute, Peshawar, Pakistan; *Senior Research Officer, In-charge Genomic Laboratory, Veterinary Research Insitute, Peshawar, Pakistan
*Corresponding author:;


The current study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella and its dominant serovars, S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium by phenotypic and molecular characterization in poultry. We reported the antimicrobial resistance profile, biofilm formation and presence of resistant and virulent genes of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium of poultry origin in Peshawar. A total of 310 liver samples were collected from morbid and dead birds and processed both by direct plating and selective enrichment methods. Over all prevalence of Salmonella was found to be 21.6% in poultry liver. PCR based molecular screening of Salmonella isolates through serovar specific genes revealed that S. Enteritidis (74.11%) and S. Typhymurium (18.8%) were the most prevalent serovars. Salmonella isolates were found highly resistant to Tetracycline, Oxytetracycline, Nalidixic acid, Doxycycline, Sulfamethoxazole and Erythromycin. While susceptibility of Salmonella isolates was noted against Ceftriaxone, Cefotaxime, Meropenem, Amikacin, Norfloxacin and Ceftazidime. The prevalence of MDR strains were found to be 93.3% of the total isolates while 14.4% isolates were ESBLs producers. The most prevalent resistant genes in Salmonella were sul1 (98.8%), sul2 (97.6%), gyrA (95.2%), strB and CTX-M (80%). Four virulent genes i.e. SpaN, CsgA, SipA and MsgA were present in more than 80% of isolated strains of Salmonella. Hence, it was concluded that poultry birds in the Peshawar region are carrier of highly resistant and virulent S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium strains and are a potential public health risk. A routine surveillance and a regulated antimicrobial application are required for control and prevention of the current situation in the poultry.

To Cite This Article: Ahmad Y, Zahra R, Ali MI, Riaz MH, Khan R, Khan K, Khan MT, Khan MF, Ullah S, Hassan F, Ali A and Zeb MT, 2020. Molecular screening of resistant and virulent genes in Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium from Poultry in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Pak Vet J, 40(3): 343-349.  


ISSN 0253-8318 (Print)
ISSN 2074-7764 (Online)