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Biological Factors Associated with Infectious Diarrhea in Calves
Suhee Kim1, Do-Hyeon Yu2, Sukhan Jung3, Jinhee Kang4, Kwangman Park4, Jeong-Byoung Chae5, Kyoung-Seong Choi6, Hyeon-Cheol Kim7, Bae-Keun Park8, Joon-Seok Chae5 and Jinho Park4,*

1Department of Internal Medicine and Institute of Health Science, Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Jinju 52727, Republic of Korea; 2College of Veterinary Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52828, Republic of Korea; 3National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration, Wanju 55365, Republic of Korea
4College of Veterinary Medicine, Jeonbuk National University, Iksan 54596, Republic of Korea; 5Laboratory of Veterinary Internal Medicine, BK21 PLUS Program for Creative Veterinary Science Research, Research Institute for Veterinary Science and College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea
6College of Ecology and Environmental Science, Kyungpook National University, Sangju 37224, Republic of Korea
7College of Veterinary Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Republic of Korea
8College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Republic of Korea
*Corresponding author:


Calf diarrhea is a major cause of economic loss in the cattle industry. Identifying biomarkers associated with the pathological conditions may provide beneficial guidelines for detecting disease progression and monitoring effectiveness of therapeutic agents in calves suffering from diarrhea. The objective of this research was to find out biological factors associated with calf diarrhea, based on clinical findings and the presence of enteric pathogens. Fecal and blood samples were obtained from 73 non-diarrheal and 42 diarrheal calves. The presence of enteric pathogens, hemato-chemical parameters, acute phase proteins, and pro-inflammatory cytokines were investigated in the samples. According to the presence of diarrhea and pathogens, the calves were classified into healthy (n=35), subclinical (non-diarrheal but pathogen-positive, n=36), infectious diarrheal (diarrheal and pathogen-positive, n=39), and unknown diarrheal groups (diarrheal but pathogen-negative, n=3). The presence of bovine coronavirus, bovine rotavirus group A, and Cryptosporidium spp. were significantly associated with the development of calf diarrhea (P<0.05). The infectious diarrheal group showed increases in monocyte percentages and blood urea nitrogen level and the decreases in glucose, potassium, and phosphorus levels (P<0.05). Moreover, inflammatory proteins such as haptoglobin, fibrinogen, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were elevated in the infectious diarrheal group compared to the healthy group (P<0.05). The current study identified altered blood biological factors in calves with infectious diarrhea. The results suggested that these factors may be useful targets for monitoring animal health in calf diarrheal disease, especially infectious diarrhea.

To Cite This Article: Kim S, Yu DH, Jung S, Kang J, Park K, Chae JB, Choi KS, Kim HC, Park BK, Chae JS and Park J, 2021. Biological factors associated with infectious diarrhea in calves. Pak Vet J, 41(4): 531-537.


ISSN 0253-8318 (Print)
ISSN 2074-7764 (Online)