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Azoxystrobin-induced Oxidative Stress in Gills, Hematological Biomarkers and Histopathological Ailments in Fresh Water Fish

Syed Athar Husnain Kazmi1, Rehana Iqbal1*, Amin A. Al-Doaiss2, 3, Muhammad Ali4, Riaz Hussain5*, Fariha Latif1 and Ghulam Ali Raza6

1Institute of Pure and Applied Biology, Zoology Division, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan
2Biology Department, College of Science, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia.
3Anatomy and Histology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Sana’a University, Sana’a, Yemen
4Department of Zoology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan; 5Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, Pakistan;6Department of Zoology, Islamia University of Bahawalpur, 63100, Pakistan
*Corresponding authors:;


Azoxystrobin (AZX), also known as Amisida, is a widely used medication for treating and managing fungal diseases in agriculture. The hazardous effects of azoxystrobin on non-target organisms, particularly fish have generated significant attention for its toxicological study since it penetrates in aquatic environment from several locations. The toxicity of azoxystrobin on experimental fish was investigated in this study using a variety of biomarkers including hematology, antioxidant enzymes, oxidative stress indicators, histopathological alterations in gills, and various morphological and nuclear changes in erythrocytes. Sixty-four (64) freshwater fish reared in aquaria containing water were randomly divided into four treatment groups (T0 and T1-T3). All the fish were exposed to AZX at different concentrations (60.0, 80.0, and 100 μg/L) to determine the harmful effects of AZX. All the fish except in control (untreated) group received the AZX treatment for the period of 42 days. Hematology results showed reduced erythrocyte and hemoglobin values and higher total and differential leukocyte values. The findings showed that treated fish had considerably higher levels of various oxidative stress biomarkers in gills while lower levels of total proteins and antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and reduced glutathione). This research exhibited that certain nuclear abnormalities (erythrocytes with condensed, lobed nuclei, and erythrocytes with micronuclei, and morphological alterations (erythrocytes with spindle shape, pear shape, and spherocyte) were significantly increased in the erythrocytes of the experimental fish. AZX induced microscopic abnormalities in gills of different treated fish. Our experimental study suggested that AZX disturbs physiological and biochemical markers at higher concentrations.

To Cite This Article: Kazmi SAH, Iqbal R, Al-Doaiss AA, Ali M, Hussain R, Latif F and Raza GA, 2023. Azoxystrobin-induced oxidative stress in gills, hematological biomarkers and histopathological ailments in fresh water fish. Pak Vet J, 43(2): 321-326. 


ISSN 0253-8318 (Print)
ISSN 2074-7764 (Online)