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Excretory Urography by Subcutaneous Injection of Iodixanol in Persian Squirrel (Sciurus Anomalous)
A. Veshkini, M. Tavana*, I. Sohrabi Haghdost1, M. Nasroulahzadeh Masouleh, S Habib Savojbolaghi
Department of Radiology, 1Department of Pathology, Faculty of Specialized Veterinary Sciences, Science and Research Branch of Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
*Corresponding author:


There are many indications for excretory urography in humans and animals. Intravenous urography (IVU) is the most practical method about other urography techniques are used because of difficulties for finding veins in IVU, due to small size of the patients. This study was performed to evaluate the feasibility of subcutaneous injection of iodixanol in providing a safe and diagnostic urogram in Persian squirrel. Twelve clinically healthy adult Persian squirrels were prepared and kept for two weeks prior to study. Blood tests were performed 7 days prior to the study. After eighteen hour fasting, animals were sedated by using xylazine/diazepam cocktail (xylazine 5mg/kg, diazepam 30mg/kg). Lateral and ventrodorsal control radiographs were taken. Thirteen hundred and 1800 mg iodine per kilogram body weight of iodixanol was injected subcutaneously over shoulder area in Persian squirrels (each dose for six Persian squirrels). Lateral and ventrodorsal radiographs were taken every 5 minutes until the pyelogram was finished. Blood tests were performed 5 days after the study. Histopathologic samples were taken from skin, kidneys, ureters and urinary bladder. The kidneys of squirrels were bean-shaped and their size was approximately 1.7×0.8 cm in ventrodorsal view for both kidneys. Subcutaneous injection of iodixanol was successful to show pyelogram, uretrogram and cystogram but it was unsuccessful in showing nephrogram without pyelogram except in one case (8.33%). Good pictures of nephrograms, calices and the ureters were obtained approximately 70 min after injection. There were no abnormal clinical signs after one week of experiment. There were no abnormal blood chemistry and hematological changes. Urinary system and skin microscopic examinations were normal. It is concluded that subcutaneous urography is an effective and reliable method for urography studies in squirrel except for nephrogram. More investigations are needed to study reasons for the lack of nephrogram, it may be due to incomplete preparation.

Key words: Excretory urography; Iodixanol; Persian Squirrel; Subcutaneous


ISSN 0253-8318 (Print)
ISSN 2074-7764 (Online)