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Enteric Diseases of Poultry with Special Attention to Clostridium perfringens
Hafez Mohamed Hafez*
Institute of Poultry Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Free University Berlin, Königsweg, 14163 Berlin, Germany *Corresponding author:


The enteric heath of growing poultry is imperative to success of the production. The basic role of poultry production is turning feed stuffs into meat. Any changes in this turning process, due to mechanical, chemical or biological disturbance of digestive system (enteric disorders) is mostly accompanied with high economic losses due to poor performance, increased mortality rates and increased medication costs. The severity of clinical signs and course of the disorders are influenced several factors such as management, nutrition and the involved agent(s). Several pathogens (viruses, bacteria and parasites) are incriminated as possible cause of enteric disorders either alone (mono-causal), in synergy with other micro-organisms (multi-causal), or with non-infectious causes such as feed and /or management related factors. In addition, excessive levels of mycotoxins and biogenic amines in feed lead to enteric disorders. Also factors such as high stocking density, poor litter conditions, poor hygiene and high ammonia level and other stressful situation may reduce the resistance of the birds and increases their susceptibility to infections. Under field conditions, however, under filed conditions it is difficult to determine whether the true cause of enteric disorders, is of infectious or non-infectious origin. In recent years and since the ban of use of antimicrobial growth promoters in several countries the incidence of intestinal disorders especially those caused by clostridial infection was drastically increased. The present review described in general the several factors involved in enteric disorders and summarized the available literatures about Clostridium perfringens infection in poultry.

Key words: Cholangiohepatitis; Clostridium perfringens; Enteric diseases; Necrotic enteritis; Poultry


ISSN 0253-8318 (Print)
ISSN 2074-7764 (Online)