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Seroprevalence of Bovine Herpes Virus-1, Bovine Herpes Virus-4 and Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus in Dairy Cattle in Sudan
Amira M. Elhassan*, M.A Fadol and A.M. El-Hussein2
Central Veterinary Research Laboratory, Khartoum, 1Animal Resources Research Corporation, P. O. Box 8067, Khartoum, Sudan *Corresponding author:


A survey was conducted to determine prevalence of antibodies against Bovine herpes virus-1 (BoHv-1), Bovine herpes virus-4 (BoHv-4) and Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) in dairy cattle in farms with reproductive problems in two areas in Sudan. Sera samples were collected from Khartoum state and central Sudan during 2005-2008 and analyzed using direct ELISA. The prevalence of antibodies was discussed with respect to age, season, sex, breed and locality BoHv-1 and BVD antibodies were highly prevalent in Khartoum state (51.7%, P≤0.03 and 50.4%, P≤0.001 respectively) while in central Sudan BoHv-1 (32.7%) antibodies were the most prevalent followed by, BVD (25.7%) and BoHv-4 (19.3%). The highest prevalence of antibodies against the three viruses in both areas was found during the rainy season (July to October). The prevalence of antibodies to viruses studied was significantly associated with female sex (P≤0.05) except for BoHv-1 (P≤0.1). Prevalence of antibodies to BoHv-4 was significantly associated with breed (P≤0.03) while those of BoHv-1 and BVD were not. The present results indicated that older cattle were more likely to be seropositive in case of BoHv-4 but not to BoHv-1 or BVD viruses. Furthermore, it was found that BoHv-1 and BVD antibodies were highly prevalent in aborted dams. While, infertility problems were highly associated with BoHv-1 antibodies. BVD antibodies showed the highest prevalence in case of death after birth. The results of this study provide better understanding of viral epidemics of reproductive disorders and represent the first report of BoHv-4 antibodies in cattle in Sudan.

Key words: BoHv-1; BoHv-4; BVD; Seroprevalence; Sudan


ISSN 0253-8318 (Print)
ISSN 2074-7764 (Online)