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Distribution of Various Mycotoxins in Compound Feed, Total Mix Ration and Silage
N. Sultana, A. Rashid, I. Tahira, H. U. Hanif1 and N. Q. Hanif
Romer Labs, Rawalpindi; 1Department of Environmental Sciences, National University of Science and Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan *Corresponding Author:


Present study was planned to assess the spectrum of natural occurrence of aflatoxins, zearalenone, ochratoxin A and A-B trichothecenes in dairy feed, silage and total mixed rations.  One hundred and seventy one samples were analyzed by chromatographic technique. In cattle compound feed, there was a high incidence of aflatoxin B1 (97.31%) followed by aflatoxin B2 (50.33%), aflatoxin G1 (10.74%), aflatoxin G2 (1.47%), zearalenone (39.25%), ochratoxin A (37.5%) and deoxynivalenol (2.96%) with average values of 29, 8, 21, 10, 862, 64 and 813 ng/g respectively. Nine samples were found tainted with T-2 toxin (282ng/g), nivalenol (285ng/g) and fusarenon-x (1625ng/g) respectively. However, frequency distribution showed that positive seventy-seven (51.59%)samples found to be contaminated with aflatoxin B1 levels higher than permissible level of European Commission (<20ng/g).  For zearalenone, forty-four (32.50%) samples were tainted with levels ranging from ≥500 to 3750ng/gi.e. higher than recommendations by European commission (<500ng/g). In contrast to compound feed, mycotoxin analysis in silage samples demonstrated the high prevalence of ochratoxin A (77.77 %) followed by AFB1 (25%) with mean of 53 and 8.71ng/g respectively. A scrutiny of mycotoxin for total mixed ration depicted that all samples were contaminated with aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A with an average of 30 and 48.5ng/g respectively. As far as multi-mycotoxin co-existence is concerned, compound feed was concurrently contaminated with two, three and four types of mycotoxins.

Key words: Co-contamination, Dairy, Feed, Mycotoxins, Silage


ISSN 0253-8318 (Print)
ISSN 2074-7764 (Online)