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The Synergistic Effects of Hypertonic Saline Solution and Ketoprofen in the Amelioration of Cytokine Level and Cardiac Performance in Induced Endotoxic Shock in Dogs
Muhammad Arif Zafar1*, Asif Riaz1, Rao Zahid Abbas2, Murtaz-ul-Hasan1, Saif-ur-Rehman1 and Arfan Yousaf1
1Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Pir Mehr Ali Shah-Arid Agriculture University, 46300, Rawalpindi; 2University College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, Pakistan; *Corresponding author:


This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of rapid IV administration of hypertonic saline solution (HSS), ketoprofen and their combination thereof in amelioration of endotoxic shock through reduction in cytokine level and improved cardiac performance. For this purpose, 18 adult, healthy, mongrel dogs of either sex were used. Endotoxic shock was induced in all dogs through administration of Escherichia coli endotoxin @ 1 mg/kg BW, IV. Sixty minutes after infusion, all dogs were divided randomly into three groups equally viz. groups A, B and C. Animals of group A were treated with IV administration of ketoprofen alone @ 2 mg/kg BW. Group B received HSS @ 4 ml/kg BW, IV, and dogs of group C were treated with a combination of HSS and ketoprofen @ 4 ml/kg and 2 mg/kg BW, IV, respectively. Dogs were monitored for next 36 hours after institution of treatment. Efficacy was evaluated through interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-6, prostaglandin F (PGF), mean arterial pressure (MAP), hematological parameters, blood gases and serum electrolytes. Endotoxin had profound effects on inflammatory mediators and pulmonary function causing hypoxemia accompanied by a significant decrease in MAP, PaO2 and relative plasma volume (rPV). Treatment protocol of group C induced a significant decrease in IL-1α, IL-6 and PGF and rapid increase in MAP, rPV and PaO2 when compared with isolated ketoprofen or HSS infusion. It was concluded from the results that ketoprofen as an adjunct to hypertonic resuscitation improved survival of dogs from endotoxic shock through amelioration of cytokine concentrations, improved cardiac performance and systemic oxygenation.

Key words: Endotoxemia, Hypertonic saline, Ketoprofen, Resuscitation, Shock


ISSN 0253-8318 (Print)
ISSN 2074-7764 (Online)