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Sonographic Determination of Residual Bladder Volume after Application of Different Cystotomy Closure Techniques in Dogs
IU Khan1*, MA Khan2, SG Bokhari2, A Safdar2, M Shoaib1, H Akbar2, S Aslam2, MA Khan2 and A Noor2
1Gomal College of Veterinary Sciences, Gomal University, D.I. Khan, Pakistan; 2University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Abdul Qadir Jilani Road, Lahore, Pakistan
*Corresponding author:


Residual urine volume is measured to diagnose various neurogenic and obstructive disorders of the urinary bladder. However, it is hypothesized that cystotomy closure using inverting patterns decreases intraluminal diameter of urinary bladder which consequently reduce residual bladder volume. This study aimed to investigate the ideal suturing style for cystotomy incision closure which would exert the least effect on residual bladder volume. The effect of various suturing styles on residual bladder volume was studied sonographically. Residual Bladder Volume (RBV) was calculated by the formula, i.e. RBV=L×W× (DL+DT)/2×0.625, where L=longitudinal diameter, W=transverse diameter, DL= depth at longitudinal diameter, DT=depth at transverse diameter. 24 healthy mongrel dogs were selected and randomly divided into four equal groups A, B, C and D (n=6). In groups A, B and C, the cystotomy incision was subsequently closed by two-layered appositional suturing pattern, two-layered inverting pattern and three layers (using a combination of appositional and inverting styles), respectively. Group-D remained as sham-operated Control. The results clearly showed that the three-layered closure technique using a combination of appositional and inverting patterns (Group-C), significantly reduced the bladder volume (P<0.01). Two-layered inverting patterns (Group B), also reduced the bladder volume but not up to a significant level, whereas, the appositional suturing technique (group-A) exerted the least effect on residual bladder volume. Conclusively, it was inferred that a two-layered appositional suturing pattern should be preferred for closure of cystotomy incision to avoid significant changes in residual bladder volume.

Key words: B-Mode Sonography, Cystotomy, Dogs, Residual bladder volume, Suturing patterns


ISSN 0253-8318 (Print)
ISSN 2074-7764 (Online)