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Sero-Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Q Fever in Cattle and Buffaloes Managed at Institutional Dairy Farms
Imaad Rashid1, Muhammad Saqib1, Tanveer Ahmad2 and Muhammad Sohail Sajid3
1Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan; 2Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan; 3Department of Parasitology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan; *Corresponding author:


The present study was conducted to determine the sero-prevalence of Q fever and associated risk factors in institutional dairy farms in Punjab, Pakistan. A total 11 dairy farms were investigated from different areas of Punjab province. Out of these farms, a total of 827 animals (cows n=419 and buffaloes n=408) were investigated. Presence of anti-Coxiella burnetii antibodies was determined by indirect ELISA. The overall prevalence in dairy animals (cattle and buffaloes) was 6.1% (95% CI: 4.5-7.9). In cattle prevalence was higher (7.6%; 95% CI: 5.3-10.6) than in buffaloes (4.4%; 95% CI: 2.6-6.9). The probability of occurrence of disease in cattle was higher (7.63%; OR=1.9, 95% CI: 0.99-3.25) than in buffalo (1.00%; OR=1.00) The difference in sero-prevalence between the two-dairy species was significant (p=0.052, . Stratification of Q fever as per the breed of cattle indicated that the sero-prevalence was the highest (13%) in Cholistani followed by Sahiwal (7.5%) and cross bred (2.6%). Animals age between 2.1 to 5 year (OR=2.56, 95% CI 1.05, 6.20), contact with small ruminants (OR=1.43, 95% CI 0.63, 3.25), tick infestations (OR=4.91, 95% CI 2.40, 10.00), dry-dusty environment (OR=1.55, 95% CI 0.54, 4.43), retained fetal membranes (OR=1.68, 95% CI 0.94, 5.73) and abortion history (OR=2.17, 95% CI 0.88, 5.35) were risk factors for the seropositivity of Q fever. The results of the study indicated that Q fever is prevalent in cattle and buffalo managed at institutional dairy farms in Punjab.

To Cite This Article: Rashid I, Saqib M, Ahmad T and Sajid MS, 2019. Sero-prevalence and associated risk factors of q fever in cattle and buffaloes managed at institutional dairy farms. Pak Vet J, 39(2): 221-225.


ISSN 0253-8318 (Print)
ISSN 2074-7764 (Online)