previous page   Pak Vet J, 2021, 41(4): 487-492   next page
Dose Related Analgesic, Motor and Reinforcing Effects of Nalbuphine in Rats
Shazia Nawaz1*, Tabinda Salman1, Sumera Gul1, 2 and Darakhshan Jabeen Haleem1

1Neuroscience Research Laboratory, Dr. Panjwani Center for Molecular Medicine and Drug Research, International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan; 2Department of Physiology, Wah Medical College, Wah Cantt-47040, Pakistan
*Corresponding author:


Nalbuphine, a semi-synthetic opioid drug, is a kappa (κ) agonist/ mu (μ) partial agonist.  It is clinically used for moderate to severe pain. It produces the analgesic effect largely by binding to kappa opioid receptors. The present study was designed to investigate locomotor sensitization as well reinforcing effects of different doses (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) of nalbuphine in rats. Potential analgesic and hyperalgesic effects after single and repeated administration respectively were also monitored. Reinforcing effects were monitored in a conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm and associated changes in motor activity were monitored during a drug conditioning phase. The hot plate test was used to monitor nociceptive response. The present study showed that low (5 mg/kg) and high (20 mg/kg) doses of nalbuphine were reinforcing, while the moderate dose (10 mg/kg) had no reinforcing effect in the CPP paradigm. All doses were analgesic after the first administration and on repeated administration hyperalgesia did not develop to any dose. Analgesic effects still occurred at moderate doses of nalbuphine. Sensitization-like effects were produced following moderate and high doses of nalbuphine. These findings suggested that a moderate dose of nalbuphine did not produce reinforcing effects and hyperalgesia so this dose can be used safely for treating pain.

To Cite This Article: Nawaz S, Salman T, Gul S and Haleem DJ, 2021. Dose related analgesic, motor and reinforcing effects of nalbuphine in rats. Pak Vet J, 41(4): 487-492.


ISSN 0253-8318 (Print)
ISSN 2074-7764 (Online)