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Sero-Surveillance and Risk Factors Analysis of Caprine Toxoplasmosis in Faisalabad Punjab, Pakistan
Azhar Rafique1*, Shabab Nasir1, Asma Ashraf1, Zeeshan Nawaz2, Faisal Maqbool Zahid3, Ali Abbas4 and Sabiqa Masood5

1Department of Zoology, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan; 2Department of Microbiology, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan; 3Department of Statistics, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan; 4Veterianry Research Institute Lahore, Pakistan; 5Department of Parasitology, Cholistan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Bahawalpur
*Corresponding author:


Toxoplasma gondii, a protozoan parasite can infect all warm-blooded animals such as mammals and birds, worldwide. Infection in domestic goats is caused by consumption of oocytes contaminated food and water. Infection due to T. gondii causes reproductive losses in goats and may play a key role in transmission of T. gondii infection to humans due to consumption of milk and meat of infected animals. The present study was aimed at evaluating the sero-prevalence of toxoplasmosis and its associated risk factors in goats of peri urban areas of Faisalabad Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 240 sera samples were collected and tested by Latex Agglutination Test. The results of the study were subjected to Chi square test, relative risk and odds ratio to assess the association of risk factors. According to the results age, breed and purpose of breeding the goats had no association with the prevalence of disease. However, gender, pregnancy, management practices and pen flooring exhibited the association with toxoplasmosis (P<0.05). The other strongly associated risk factors were domestic cats (P=0.001, OR=13.06), use of stagnant water (P=0.001, OR=10.68), number of cats (P=0.001, OR=5.81) and access of cats to food storage (P=0.001, OR=8.96). This study concludes that prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection is still high in goats of Faisalabad Punjab, Pakistan. The highest seroprevalence of T. gondii was recorded in autumn (29.5%) and the lowest in spring (10.3%). This infection is transmitted to humans through contaminated milk and meat posing a serious public health problem. Awareness about risk factors in farmers can be helpful to reduce this serious infection.

To Cite This Article: Rafique A, Nasir S, Ashraf A, Nawaz Z, Zahid FM, Abbas A and Masood S, 2022. Sero-surveillance and risk factors analysis of caprine toxoplasmosis in Faisalabad Punjab, Pakistan. Pak Vet J, 42(1): 102-106.


ISSN 0253-8318 (Print)
ISSN 2074-7764 (Online)