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Determination of Apoptosis and Autophagy in Bovine Ocular Squamous Cell Carcinomas by Immunohistochemistry
Ayfer Yildiz* and Emin Karakurt

Kafkas University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Pathology, Kars, Turkey
*Corresponding author:


Ocular squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common neoplasms in cattle in Kars province, Turkey. This study was performed on 45 cases of OSCC sent by the Kafkas University Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Research Hospital and private veterinary clinics to the university pathology department between the years 2012 and 2021. The removed tumor masses were macroscopically different in size and in hemorrhagic degree, and their surfaces were smooth or cauliflower-like. The removed masses were stained with hematoxylin–eosin for the histopathological examination, which showed neoplastic formations characterized by differentiation of atypical keratinocytes from the epidermis to the dermis. The cases were divided into three groups according to the density and number of tumor pearls, mitotic activity and their pleomorphism status: well differentiated, moderately differentiated, and poorly differentiated. Caspase-3 and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) as apoptosis markers and protein light chain 3 (LC3B) as autophagy markers were stained by immunohistochemical methods to determine the role of apoptosis and autophagy in OSCC cases. A statistically significant difference was observed between the groups separated according to the degree of differentiation in caspase-3 and LC3B immunostaining; however, non-significant difference in AIF immunostaining was found among three groups. The histopathological and immunohistochemical evaluations showed that caspase-dependent apoptosis was more predominant than caspase-independent apoptosis in OSCC cases of cattle, and autophagy and apoptosis might play a common role in tumor aggressiveness and progression.

To Cite This Article: Yildiz A, Karakurt E, 2022. Determination of apoptosis and autophagy in bovine ocular squamous cell carcinomas by immunohistochemistry. Pak Vet J, 42(2): 147-152.


ISSN 0253-8318 (Print)
ISSN 2074-7764 (Online)