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Outbreaks of Inclusion Body Hepatitis Caused by Fowl Adenovirus in Commercial Broiler Farms in the Kurdistan Region, North Iraq from 2013 to 2021
Nawzad Rasheed Abdulrahman1, Nahla Muhammad Saeed1*, Hiewa Othman Dyary1*, Shilan Faqe Mohamad1, Rizgar Raheem Sulaiman1, Peshnyar Muhammad Atta Rashid2,3, Omer Ismael Dana1, Emad Adward Abdulahad1 and Zana Hameed Mahmood3,4

1College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sulaimani, Sulaymaniyah 46001, Iraq
2Medical Laboratory Science Department, Komar University of Science and Technology, Sulaymaniyah 46001, Iraq
3Kurdistan Institution for Strategic Studies and Scientific Research, Sulaymaniyah 46001, Iraq
4Molecular Diagnostic Laboratory, Directorate of Veterinary Services in Sulaymaniyah, Sulaymaniyah 46001, Iraq
*Corresponding author:;


Inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) is a disease caused by fowl adenovirus (FAdV), categorized under the Adenoviridae family. FAdVs are distributed globally but have not been documented in Iraq since 1979. This study reports the disease occurrence in 89 broiler farms in Sulaymaniyah, Kurdistan Region, North Iraq, from April 2013 to April 2021. Infected birds' ages ranged between two days and four weeks. Clinically, birds were lethargic, huddling with ruffled feathers, lacked appetite, and showed yellowish mucoid droppings. The gross lesions included enlarged mottled liver, pale to icteric skin, swollen and pale kidneys, and hemorrhage on the skeletal muscle. Also, histopathological examinations revealed large intranuclear inclusion bodies in hepatocytes, degeneration and congestion of liver sinusoids, degeneration of renal tubules, interstitial tissue infiltrated with inflammatory cells, and necrotizing pancreatitis. PCR was used to detect the virus by amplification of partial 1300 bp hexon gene. The amplified fragments were confirmed by sequencing. The study results indicate that avian adenovirus is enzootic in Sulaymaniyah, Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Two different subgroups circulate in Kurdistan. The FAdV/Kurdistan/2013, FAdV/Kurdistan/2020, and FAdV/Kurdistan/2021 belong to the FAdV-E subgroup. On the other hand, the FAdV/Kurdistan/2015 belongs to the FAdV-D subgroup.

To Cite This Article: Abdulrahman NR, Saeed NM, Dyary HO, Mohamad SF, Sulaiman RR, Rashid PMA, Dana OI, Abdulahad EA and Mahmood ZH, 2022. Outbreaks of Inclusion body hepatitis caused by fowl adenovirus in commercial broiler farms in the Kurdistan Region, North Iraq, from 2013 to 2021. Pak Vet J, 42(2): 201-207.  


ISSN 0253-8318 (Print)
ISSN 2074-7764 (Online)