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Cryptosporidiosis: A Foodborne Zoonotic Disease of Farm Animals and Humans

Kinza Javed1 and Khalid A Alkheraije2*

1Department of Life Sciences, Khwaja Freed University of Engineering and Information Technology, Rahim Yar Khan, Pakistan; 2Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Qassim University, Buraidah, Saudi Arabia.
*Corresponding author:


Globally, the major concerns that are related to morbidity and high rates of death in the human community are foodborne illnesses. Cryptosporidium is a significant foodborne zoonotic parasite that is one of the most typical causes of diarrhea in the globe. Approximately 40 different species have been identified as being capable of inflicting severe to moderate illness in people, with Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum serving as the primary disease-causing agents. The main zoonotic reservoirs for Cryptosporidium are domestic animals like cattle and humans. Ingestion of oocyst from animal to person or person to person, fecal-oral transmission as well as consumption of tainted water and food, are all ways involved in disease transmission. Infected food materials like lettuce, cabbage, salad, spinach, radish, parsley, tomato, raspberries, strawberries, etc. showed different prevalence ranges of Cryptosporidium. The only medication authorized to treat cryptosporidiosis at this time is nitazoxanide. Other medications including paromomycin, azithromycin, rifaximin, and halofuginone have also been used due to clinical effectiveness. In humans, the disease severity of Cryptosporidium outbreaks ranges from 0.9% (Kuwait) to 39.6% (Iraq). This review emphasizes the significance of foodborne zoonosis in humans and farm animals by describing the transmission rate of Cryptosporidium from different sources and the presence of different percentages in food material.

To Cite This Article: Javed K and Alkheraije KA, 2023. Cryptosporidiosis: a foodborne zoonotic disease of farm animals and humans. Pak Vet J, 43(2): 213-223.


ISSN 0253-8318 (Print)
ISSN 2074-7764 (Online)