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Drug Resistance Modulation of Dairy MRSA through Berberine, Artesunate and Quercetin in Combination with β-Lactams
Saad Ahmad1, Amjad Islam Aqib2**, Muzafar Ghafoor3, Muhammad Shoaib4, Shahbaz ul Haq5, Farid Shokry Ataya6 and Li Jianxi1*

1Engineering & Technology Research Center of Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine of Gansu Province, Lanzhou Institute of Husbandry and Pharmaceutical Sciences of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou 730050, China
2Department of Medicine, Cholistan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Bahawalpur 63100, Pakistan; 3Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan; 4Key Laboratory of New Animal Drug Project, Gansu Province/Key Laboratory of Veterinary Pharmaceutical Development, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs/Lanzhou Institute of Husbandry and Pharmaceutical Sciences of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou 730050, China; 5Department of Pharmacology, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong 51504, China; 6Department of Biochemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, 24, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
*Corresponding author: *; **


The continued use of antibiotics is bringing extensive resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) of dairy animals and demands inclusion of non-antibiotic sources in treatment protocols. The current study aims to explore antibacterial potential of berberine (BR), artesunate (AR), and quercetin (QT) and extent of their resistance modulation capacity in combination with β-lactam antibiotics against MRSA. For this study, a total of 674 milk samples from dairy cows were collected for isolation of MRSA and thereafter phytochemicals (drugs) alone and in combination with β-lactams (penicillin, oxacillin, cefoxitin, ampicillin) were evaluated against MRSA. The synergy testing showed all synergistic effects except AR with penicillin which was additive effect. The synergism of antibiotics and phytochemicals was further confirmed by time-kill assay. The killing kinetics revealed a zero bacterial count at 16h of incubation in all combinations. Additionally, the killing synergy showed a significant decline i.e. less than 60% in case of BR in combination with oxacillin and penicillin at the initial 2h of incubation followed by AR and QT in combination with ampicillin. The study thus revealed potential antibacterial effects of berberine, artesunate, and quercetin along with significant resistance modulation in terms of highly synergistic combinations with antibiotics focused on novel insights into alternatives to antimicrobials to pave the road for antimicrobial stewardship against ailments like mastitis.

To Cite This Article: Ahmad S, Aqib AI, Ghafoor M, Shoaib M, Haq SU, Ataya FS and Jianxi L, 2024. Drug resistance modulation of dairy MRSA through berberine, artesunate, and quercetin in combination with β-Lactams. Pak Vet J.


ISSN 0253-8318 (Print)
ISSN 2074-7764 (Online)

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