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The Effects of Germanium biotite Supplement as a Prophylactic Agent against Respiratory Infection in Calves
Myunghwan Jung1, Bock-Gie Jung2, Seung Bin Cha1, Min-Kyoung Shin1, Won-Jung Lee1, Seung Won Shin1, Jin-A Lee2, Yeon-Kwon Jung3, Bong-Joo Lee2 and Han Sang Yoo1*
1Department of Infectious Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, KRF Zoonotic Disease Priority Research Institute and Brain Korea 21 Program for Veterinary Science, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-742, Korea; 2College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonnam National University, 300 Yongbong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 550-757, Korea; 3Seobong BioBestech. Co., Ltd., Hyechon Building #401, 831 Yeoksam-dong, Kangnam-gu, Seoul, Korea
*Corresponding author:


Germanium biotite, a natural mineral, is comprised of mainly silicate. This mineral showed activities of increase in feed efficiency and non-specific immunostimulation in previous studies. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the prophylactic effects of germanium biotite against respiratory diseases in calves as a feed supplement and investigate the possibilities of the substitution of antibiotics with germanium biotite as feed additive. To achieve these purposes, bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) and Mannheimia haemolytica serotype A1 were experimentally inoculated into the calves. After challenge, germanium biotite showed a lower cumulative clinical score (CCS) than the control group. In accordance with these clinical results, enhanced clearance of BHV-1, a low infection rate of Mannheimia haemolytica serotype A1, tempered superficial lesions, and moderated histopathological signs were observed in the germanium biotite group, compared with the control group. The results of the present study indicated that germanium biotite had prophylactic effects against bovine respiratory disease and could be a candidate for a new alternative feed supplement in calves, through its effects as a non-specific immune stimulator.

Key words: Bovine herpesvirus-1, Calves, Germanium biotite, Immune stimulator, Mannheimia haemolytica, Serotype A1


ISSN 0253-8318 (Print)
ISSN 2074-7764 (Online)