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Clinico-Pathologic Findings of Enterotoxemia in Chinkara Deer (Gazella bennettii) Under Desert Conditions in Pakistan
Riaz Hussain1*, M Tariq Javed2, Fazal Mahmood2, Tanveer Hussain3, Haroon Rashid Chaudhry1, Muhammad Sohaib Aslam2, Muhammad Tasleem Ghori1, Abdul Qayyum1,Wasim Babar1, Sajid Hameed1 and Aziz ur Rehman2
1University College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur; 2Department of Veterinary Pathology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad; 3Department of Forestry and Wildlife, University College of Agriculture and environmental Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan
*Corresponding author:


This study was carried out to know clinico-pathologic findings of enterotoxaemia in Chinkara deer (Gazella bennettii). At one farm, 10(20%) out of 50 and at other 35(31.8%) out of 110 deer died. Out of 45 animals, peracute deaths were 66.67% whereas acute deaths were 33.33%. Significantly high mortality was recorded in young animals. The case fatality was 100%. Clinical signs including moderate to acute anorexia, opisthotonus, herding in a corner with head down, marked depression, fever, chocolate colored urine and greenish watery diarrhea were observed. Necropsy of dead deer revealed presence of straw colored fluid in peritoneal/abdominal cavity. Hydropericardium, hydrothorax, congested and edematous lungs, swollen and soft kidneys, watery contents in the small intestine, ballooning and hemorrhages of small and large intestine were the consistent lesions in affected animals. Multifocal petechial hemorrhages on myocardium and jejunal mucosa were frequently observed in peracute cases. The histologic changes were hemorrhagic enteritis, pulmonary edema, congestion, proteinaceous fluid in alveoli and perivascular cuffing in lungs. Increased level of glucose was recorded in urine collected from urinary bladder of 17 deer at necropsy. Histopathological sections of kidneys revealed congestion and necrosis along with disruption of renal tubular epithelial cells. The clinical signs, post-mortem lesions and histological findings in present study were consistent with those reported due to C. perfringens type D enterotoxaemia.

Key words: Chinkara deer, Clostridium perfringens, Enterotoxaemia, Pathology


ISSN 0253-8318 (Print)
ISSN 2074-7764 (Online)