previous page   Pak Vet J, 2018, 38(4): 434-437   next page
In-ovo Antiviral Effect of Nigella sativa Extract against Newcastle Disease Virus in Experimentally Infected Chicken Embryonated Eggs
Arif Ullah Khan1*, Muhammad Yasin Tipu1, Muhammad Shafee3, Naimat Ullah Khan2, Muhammad Masood Tariq Kiani3, Majed Rafeeq3 and Syed Iftikhar Ali Shah1
1Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Veterinary and   Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan; 2Lecturer, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Abdul Wali Khan, University Mardan, Pakistan
3Assistant Professor, Center for Advanced Studies in Vaccinology & Biotechnology (CASVAB) University of Balochistan Quetta, Pakistan; *Corresponding author:


Black seed (Nigella sativa) is an important medicinal herbal plant used to treat different ailments. In the present experiment antiviral effects of black seed was evaluated. Ethanolic extact of black seed was usd in the embryonated eggs inoculated with Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV). For this purpose Sixty (n=60) embryonated chicken eggs (14th day), were randomly divided into 5 groups (G 1-5) with 12 eggs in each group. The treatment groups were G1 (control negative) and G2 (control positive) groups were inoculated with NDV @ 0.2ml/egg of (10-10.2 EID50), G3 (NDV+ Nigella sativa, 0.2mg /0.2ml), G4 (Nigella sativa only, 0.2mg/0.2 ml) and G5 (NDV+ Ribavirin 20µg/ml). Egg candling, histopathology and gross pathology were performed after 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours post inoculation. Different survival rates were observed in different groups such as, G1 and G4 (100%), G2 (33%), G3 (75%) and G5 (83%), respectively exhibiting significant difference (P<0.05) between groups. The gross study of G2 showed degeneration of thigh muscle and severe haemorrhages, while in G3 and G5 the lesions were not intense and showing viral inhibition effects of herbal extract and Ribavirin. Degeneration in hepatocytes, mild necrosis, lymphocytosis and increased number of macrophages were also evident in G3 and G5.  There were dominant population of plasma cells, lymphocytes with mild degeneration and lymphoblasts. In G2 degeneration of bursal follicles, while in G3 and G5 aggregation of lymphocytes and lymphoblasts, developed bursal follicles with clear cortex and medulla was noticed. The gross examination and histopathology of the embryonated eggs revealed that Nigella sativa extract have strong immunotherapeutic effect against NDV infcetion.

To Cite This Article: Khan AU, Tipu MY, Shafee M, Khan NU, Kiani MMT, Rafeeq M and Shah SIA, 2018. In-ovo antiviral effect of Nigella sativa extract against Newcastle Disease Virus in experimentally infected chicken embryonated eggs. Pak Vet J, 38(4): 434-437.  


ISSN 0253-8318 (Print)
ISSN 2074-7764 (Online)