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First Record on Body Morphometrics and Chemical Immobilization of Wolves from Pakistan
Ghulam Sarwar1*, Abdul Majid Khan1, Fakhar I Abbas2, Muhammad Tahir Waseem1 and Lauren Mae Hennelly3

1Institute of Zoology, University of the Punjab, Lahore (54590), Pakistan
2Bioresource Research Centre, Al Rehman Villas, Bahria Enclave Road, Islamabad, Pakistan
3Mammalian Ecology and Conservation Unit, Veterinary Genetics Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine, 1-Shields Avenue, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
*Corresponding author:;


The gray wolf (Canis lupus) is a less studied wide-ranging endangered carnivore in Pakistan. The current investigation is the first to report their body morphometrics and chemical immobilization in Pakistan. Body morphometrics was examined for 12 wolves by measuring 15 variables. The majority of the 12 wolves had body weights that were more similar or slightly higher than the weights of Indian wolves from Central India. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed that the wolves from the southern lowland region have differing morphology, independent of body size compared to the wolves from other regions of Pakistan. To record the body morphometrics, wolves were immobilized using Zoletil™-50 (Z) (n=6) and Xylazine-Ketamine hydrochloride (X-K) combination (n=3). The wolves were immobilized by using drug doses 5-6 mg/kg for Z, and 1.25 mg/kg for X and 2-3 mg/kg for K. The first sign (minutes) of anesthesia was noted after 3.15±1.9 for Z and 4.97±2.3 for X-K combination. The recumbency time was 7.7±2.5 for Z and 11.7±3 for X-K combination. The sign of recovery was recorded at 40.4±13.5 for Z and 34.1±2.4 for X-K combination, while the sedation duration was recorded at 45.3±12.5 for Z and 39.6±3.5 for X-K combination. These results suggest that Z induced quicker induction, more profound recumbency and swifter recovery than X-K combination. Additionally, physiological parameters including rectal temperature, respiration, heart rate and palpebral and capillary reflexes with both combinations remained within the safe ranges.

To Cite This Article: Sarwar G, Khan AM, Abbas FI, Waseem MT and Hennelly LM, 2021. First record on body morphometrics and chemical immobilization of wolves from Pakistan. Pak Vet J, 41(4): 499-506.   


ISSN 0253-8318 (Print)
ISSN 2074-7764 (Online)