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The Efficiency of 3D-Printed Dog Brain Ventricular Models from 3 Tesla (3T) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) for Neuroanatomy Education
Okan Ekim1, Caner Bakici1*, Aytaç Akçay2, Oktay Algin3 and Cagdas Oto1,4

1 Ankara University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Anatomy, TR-06070 Ankara – TÜRKİYE; 2 Ankara University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Biostatistics, TR-06070 Ankara – TÜRKİYE; 3 Ankara University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, TR-06230 Ankara – TÜRKİYE; 4 Medical Design, Research and Application Center, TR-06520 Ankara - TÜRKİYE
*Corresponding author:


Neuroanatomy is widely regarded as one of the most complex subjects in veterinary education and clinical practice. Understanding the brain ventricles in particular can be quite challenging for learners. In addition to classical methods, three-dimensional (3D) printed models can provide an efficient learning process. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of 3D-printed models (3DPM) depicting the dog brain ventricular system as educational tools in neurology and neuroanatomy. Additionally, it outlines the process of creating these models, from imaging specimens with a 3 Tesla magnetic resonance (MR) to 3D printing. MR imaging was performed on four mesocephalic dogs. The semi-automatic technique was performed on MR images to generate a 3D reconstruction of the brain ventricles. 3D digital images were used to create 3DPM with an FDM printer. An evaluation survey for learners was also conducted to evaluate the efficiency of 3DPM for neuroanatomy education. The ventricular system and associated anatomical structures were easily identified on MR images. A detailed 3D model of the ventricular system was created by this method. It was determined that 3DPM was easily handled, quickly reproducible, cost-efficient, and storable. Besides, a significant number of students stated that the use of 3DPM is necessary and will be more useful in learning neuroanatomy. This technique could help not only education partners like lecturers and learners but also clinicians like radiologists and surgeons to understand canine ventricular anatomy better.

To Cite This Article: Ekim O, Bakici C, Akçay A, Algin O and Oto C, 2024. The efficiency of 3D-printed dog brain ventricular models from 3 tesla (3T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for neuroanatomy education. Pak Vet J.


ISSN 0253-8318 (Print)
ISSN 2074-7764 (Online)

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